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Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of osteoporosis

M. Rossini, S. Adami, F. Bertoldo, D. Diacinti, D. Gatti, S. Giannini, A. Giusti, N. Malavolta, S. Minisola, G. Osella, M. Pedrazzoni, L. Sinigaglia, O. Viapiana, G. C. Isaia
  • M. Rossini http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9692-2293
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy | maurizio.rossini@univr.it
  • S. Adami
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • F. Bertoldo
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • D. Diacinti
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • D. Gatti
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • S. Giannini
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • A. Giusti
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • N. Malavolta
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • S. Minisola
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • G. Osella
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • M. Pedrazzoni
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • L. Sinigaglia
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • O. Viapiana
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy
  • G. C. Isaia
    On behalf of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) with the endorsement of Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR), Italy

Abstract

Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue. National Societies have developed Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder with an effort of adapting specific tools for risk assessment on the peculiar characteristics of a given population. The Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS) has recently revised the previously published Guidelines on the diagnosis, riskassessment, prevention and management of primary and secondary osteoporosis. The guidelines were first drafted by a working group and then approved by the board of SIOMMMS. Subsequently they received also the endorsement of other major Scientific Societies that deal with bone metabolic disease. These recommendations are based on systematic reviews of the best available evidence and explicit consideration of cost effectiveness. When minimal evidence is available, recommendations are based on leading experts’ experience and opinion, and on good clinical practice. The osteoporosis prevention should be based on the elimination of specific risk factors. The use of drugs registered for the treatment of osteoporosis are recommended when the benefits overcome the risk, and this is the case only when the risk of fracture is rather high as measured with variables susceptible to pharmacological effect. DeFRA (FRAX® derived fracture risk assessment) is recognized as a useful tool for easily estimate the long-term fracture risk. Several secondary forms of osteoporosis require a specific diagnostic and therapeutic management.

Keywords

Guidelines; risk factors; fractures; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; osteoporosis.

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Submitted: 2016-02-14 18:45:37
Published: 2016-06-23 17:54:17
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Copyright (c) 2016 M. Rossini, S. Adami, F. Bertoldo, D. Diacinti, D. Gatti, S. Giannini, A. Giusti, N. Malavolta, S. Minisola, G. Osella, M. Pedrazzoni, L. Sinigaglia, O. Viapiana, G. C. Isaia

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