Reumatismo 2019-01-17T13:37:48+01:00 Paola Granata Open Journal Systems <p>Official <em>Journal Of The Italian Society Of Rheumatology</em>. Founded In 1949.</p> <p><strong>Reumatismo</strong> is the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR). It publishes Abstracts and Proceedings of Italian Congresses and original papers concerning rheumatology. Reumatismo is published quarterly and is sent free of charge to the Members of the SIR who regularly pay the annual fee. Those who are not Members of the SIR as well as Corporations and Institutions may also subscribe to the Journal.</p> <p>This journal does not apply the article processing charge&nbsp;to Authors as it is supported by institutional funds.</p> Paraneoplastic rheumatic disorders: a narrative review 2019-01-17T13:37:47+01:00 C.U. Manzini M. Colaci C. Ferri E. Manzini <p>Paraneoplastic syndromes (PS) are a heterogeneous group of diseases related to a neoplasm, indirectly dependent on it. Diagnosis and the treatment are often a challenge for clinicians, not least because the pathogenetic mechanisms are highly complex and not entirely known. Nonetheless, in most cases, PS precede the diagnosis of malignancies, thus their identification is particularly important in addressing physicians’ diagnostic work-up with regard to early cancer diagnosis. Among paraneoplastic syndromes, those of rheumatologic interest represent a large component. In this paper, we review the main rheumatic PS.</p> 2018-12-20T10:25:49+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Extra-articular rheumatoid arthritis 2019-01-17T13:37:48+01:00 E. Marcucci E. Bartoloni A. Alunno M.C. Leone G. Cafaro F. Luccioli V. Valentini E. Valentini G.M.C. La Paglia A.F. Bonifacio R. Gerli <p>Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that mainly affects the joints, though a consistent proportion of patients may also display extra articular manifestations (EAMs). From rheumatoid nodules to interstitial lung disease, from cardiovascular events to vasculitis, the spectrum of EAMs encompasses various conditions with different prognoses. EAMs may also occur as first RA manifestation, therefore the coordination with other health professionals, including general practitioners, is needed. The aim of this article is to provide an overview on EAMs in RA with particular focus on the recognised risk factors and the available recommendations for managing them, as well as comorbidities in RA patients.</p> 2018-12-20T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thermal alterations in patients with inflammatory diseases: a comparison between psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis 2019-01-17T13:37:46+01:00 A. Capo J. Di Paolo E. Celletti E. Ismail A. Merla P. Amerio <p>Functional infrared imaging (fIRI) is used to provide information on circulation, thermal properties and thermoregulatory function of the cutaneous tissue in several clinical settings. This study aims to evaluate the application of fIRI in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assessment, evaluating the thermoregulatory alterations due to joint inflammation in RA patients both in basal conditions and after a mild functional (isometric) exercise, using the same protocol we projected in our recent work on psoriatic arthritis (PsA); fIRI outcomes were compared with those provided by power-Doppler ultrasonography. Ten patients with RA and 11 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The cutaneous temperature dynamics of 20 regions of interest located on the dominant hand were recorded by means of high-resolution thermal imaging at baseline and after a functional exercise. RA patients showed lower thermal parameters compared to healthy controls, suggesting that the RA-related inflammatory state alters the normal thermal properties of the skin overlying inflamed joints. These results are different from PsA data observed in the previous study. fIRI applied to the study of the response to a functional stimulus may represent an innovative, non-invasive, and operator-independent method for the assessment of early RA</p> 2018-12-20T11:18:36+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inflammatory markers predict insulin sensitivity in active rheumatoid arthritis but not in psoriatic arthritis 2019-01-17T13:37:45+01:00 M. Bellan S. Bor A. Gibbin A. Gualerzi S. Favretto G. Guaschino R. Bonometti A. Rossini D. Sola R. Pedrazzoli G.P. Carnevale Schianca M. Pirisi P.P. Sainaghi <p>Whether the insulin resistance commonly observed in patients with inflammatory arthritis is a disease-specific feature and/or is limited to a disease phase (<em>i.e</em>., it occurs only during phases of high disease activity) is unknown. Fifty-three rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 44 psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients were recruited consecutively along with 194 controls matched for age, sex and body mass index for a case-control study. All underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, the results of which were analysed to derive the following indexes: homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and early insulin sensitivity index (EISI). These data were related to anthropometric, clinical and laboratory findings. Metabolic parameters of patients and controls were similar. Neither inflammatory markers nor disease activity scores were related to glucose metabolism for the generality of RA and PsA patients; however, by restricting the analysis to the subset of RA patients with residual disease activity, an association emerged between erythrocyte sedimentation rate, on the one hand, and fasting insulin (β=0.46, p=0.047) and HOMA-IR (β=0.44, p=0.02), on the other. Moreover, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were associated with plasma glucose and insulin levels measured 120 min after the glucose load (β=0.91, p=0.0003 and β=0.77, p=0.0006, respectively); ISI and EISI were predicted by CRP (β=-0.79, p=0.0006; β=-0.80, p=0.0001, respectively). The same did not hold true for PsA patients. The association between systemic inflammation and insulin resistance indexes is a feature of RA with residual disease activity, not a universal feature of inflammatory arthritides.</p> 2018-12-20T11:49:47+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The association between serum prolactin levels and interleukin-6 and systemic lupus erythematosus activity 2019-01-17T13:37:44+01:00 W.A. Wan Asyraf M.S. Mohd Shahrir W. Asrul A.W. Norasyikin O. Hanita W.Y. Kong M.T. Azmi <p>Based on the recent evidence of association between hyperprolactinemia and systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity (SLEDAI), a study was conducted to analyze the association of hyperprolactinemia with lupus nephritis disease activity. In this cross-sectional study, the analysis was conducted on SLE patients who visited the University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) Nephrology Clinic from August 2015 till February 2016. The disease activity was measured using the SLEDAI score, with more than 4 indicating active lupus nephritis. Basal resting prolactin level was analyzed in 43 patients with lupus nephritis, in 27.9% of them had raised serum prolactin. The median of serum prolactin level at 0 minutes was 19.91 ng/mL (IQR: 15.95-22.65 ng/ mL) for active lupus nephritis, which was significantly higher compared to the median of serum prolactin level of 14.34 ng/mL (IQR: 11.09-18.70 ng/mL) for patients in remission (p=0.014). The serum prolactin level positively correlated with SLEDAI (rhos: 0.449, p=0.003) and the UPCI level in lupus nephritis patients (rhos: 0.241, p=0.032). The results were reproduced when the serum prolactin was repeated after 30 minutes. However, the serum prolactin levels at 0 minutes were higher than those taken after 30 minutes (p=0.001). An assessment of serum IL-6 levels found that the active lupus nephritis patients had a higher median level of 65.91 pg/ mL (IQR: 21.96-146.14 pg/mL) compared to the in-remission level of 15.84 pg/mL (IQR: 8.38-92.84 pg/mL), (p=0.039). Further correlation analysis revealed that there was no statistical correlation between the interleukin (IL)-6 levels with serum prolactin, SLEDAI and other lupus nephritis parameters. An ROC curve analysis of serum prolactin at 0 minutes and serum prolactin after 30 minutes and IL-6 levels for prediction of SLE disease activity provided the cutoff value of serum prolactin at 0 minutes, which was 14.63 ng/mL with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 58.1% and AUC of 0.74 (p=0.015). This study concurred with the previous findings that stated that hyperprolactinemia is prevalent in SLE patients and correlated with clinical disease activity and UPCI level. The baseline of the fasting serum prolactin level was found to be a sensitive biomarker for the evaluation of lupus nephritis disease activity.</p> 2018-12-20T12:09:51+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Spasmophilia and entrapment nerve syndrome comorbidities in fibromyalgic patients: a possible neuromuscular pain generator 2019-01-17T13:37:44+01:00 F. Ginanneschi G. Filippou A. Adinolfi V. Di Sabatino B. Frediani A. Rossi <p>This paper is aimed at investigating whether peripheral dysfunction at the neuromuscular level may represent a pain generator in fibromyalgia. We studied the prevalence of spasmophilia (SP), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) in a group of 40 subjects suffering from fibromyalgia. Clinical and electrophysiological data were obtained to ascertain whether comorbid conditions were present. For subjective evaluation of symptoms severity, validated questionnaires for CTS and UNE were completed by patients. Twenty subjects were positive for SP (50%); CTS was diagnosed in 12 subjects (30%); no patient suffered from UNE; 6 subjects were affected at the same time by SP and CTS (15%); 14 subjects (35%) were affected by SP alone. The prevalence of CTS and SP was higher in fibromyalgia subjects than in the general population. The scores of the questionnaires related to CTS were significantly higher in fibromyalgia subjects positive for CTS, with respect to the other subjects. In fibromyalgia, CTS and SP may be considered clinical entities in themselves, the importance of which lies in their acting as peripheral pain generators that enhance or initiate central sensitization, thereby contributing to chronic widespread pain. The amplification of pain is indeed a correctable/misguided message that occurs inside the brain of fibromyalgia subjects and identification and local treatment of pain generators would lessen the total pain burden. The magnitude of the overlap in symptoms between fibromyalgia and CTS/SP necessitates careful investigation of these conditions.</p> 2018-12-20T12:20:28+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nailfold videocapillaroscopy in antisynthetase syndrome 2019-01-17T13:37:43+01:00 G. Cassone M. Sebastiani L. Cavagna K. Triantafyllias V. Codullo C. Salvarani A. Manfredi <p>A 57-year-old woman with a diagnosis of antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD) underwent a nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) showing a scleroderma pattern. Alterations in capillary morphology have been reported in adults with inflammatory myositis (IM) but only recently have the differences in NVC findings between these two diseases been established. ASSD is currently classified as a subset of IM, for which reason only a few studies in literature evaluate its specific hallmarks, showing nonspecific features of NVC in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis (DM) and antisynthetase antibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first description of ASSD capillaroscopy features, and the first report of NVC in ASSD with evidence of scleroderma pattern. Further studies are needed to define clearly frequency, typical features, and possible correlation with clinical and serological data of NVC changes in ASSD, differences between microangiopathy in ASSD and systemic sclerosis or DM.</p> 2018-12-20T12:31:52+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Urticarial vasculitis as an initial manifestation of colonic carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature 2019-01-17T13:37:42+01:00 A.A. Younis <p>Cutaneous vasculitis may behave as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Paraneoplastic vasculitis as a phenomenon of colonic adenocarcinoma has been described in the literature. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first case report of urticarial vasculitis being an initial presentation of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the colon. I here report a case of 27-year-old woman who had rash, arthritis, and episodic bleeding per rectum. The rash was biopsy-proven to be leukocytoclastic vasculitis. There was only partial response to high-dose steroid, and rectal bleeding continued. Colonoscopy revealed a stenosing growth of sigmoid colon, which proved to be signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon. It is important to remain vigilant with regard to the association between leukocytoclastic vasculitis and malignancies.</p> 2018-12-20T12:38:37+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Magnetic resonance imaging findings of infectious sacroiliitis associated with iliopsoas abscess: a case report in a young male 2019-01-17T13:37:41+01:00 D. Diacinti C. Gioia F. Vullo G. Cannavale C. Catalano G. Valesini <p>Infectious sacroiliitis is an infection of the sacroiliac joint, not easy to diagnose because of its non-specific signs, symptoms and laboratory abnormalities. We describe a case of a 16 year-old male with 5 days’ history of fever, abdominal pain, constipation, low-back and left hip pain extended to the left knee associated with sudden inability to walk. In the first place, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of his sacroiliac joint revealed an enlarged corpuscolated fluid collection near the left iliopsoas muscle, extended to homolateral paravertebral muscles and a little fluid at the left sacroiliac joint. Drainage by aspiration of the iliopsoas abscess was applied; <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was found in the aspirated fluid and isolated from the blood too. Therefore intravenous antibiotic therapy was begun. Follow-up MRI exams confirmed the muscle abscess and revealed also a spongy bone edema of the left sacroiliac joint, persisting despite the disappearance of symptoms and the normalization of inflammatory values. It is important to make an early diagnosis of infectious sacroiliitis in order to begin antibiotic therapy as soon as possible, because of the increasing morbidity of infection of sacroiliac joint. In our case MR findings have provided significant orientation towards the final diagnosis of infectious sacroiliitis.</p> 2018-12-20T12:47:35+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in a patient with septal panniculitis: a case report 2019-01-17T13:37:39+01:00 C. Cosso M. Ghio M. Cutolo <p>Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is an autoimmune form of encephalopathy, associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Its prevalence is estimated to be 2:100,000. HE is characterized by behavioral changes, mental confusion, dysarthria, ataxia, psychosis, paranoia, convulsions, hallucinations, headache and hyperthermia. Elevated thyroid antibodies are necessary for diagnosis and the disease responds dramatically to glucocorticoid therapy. We describe a patient with HE and panniculitis, an association reported twice in the literature.</p> 2018-12-20T13:02:41+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##