The clinical spectrum of primary Sjögren’s syndrome: beyond exocrine glands

  • M.C. Leone Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy.
  • A. Alunno Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy.
  • G. Cafaro Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy.
  • V. Valentini Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy.
  • E. Marcucci Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy.
  • E. Bartoloni Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy.
  • R. Gerli | roberto.gerli@unipg.it Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy.

Abstract

Although primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is a mild indolent chronic disease mainly characterized by mucosal dryness in the majority of cases, a consistent subgroup of patients display extra-glandular manifestations. Virtually any organs and systems can be affected, leading to a more serious disease prognosis. Therefore, the prompt identification of patients at higher risk of extra-glandular manifestations is necessary to start a thorough follow up and an aggressive treatment. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of epidemiological, clinical and serological features of extra-glandular manifestations in pSS as well as current knowledge about putative biomarkers useful in clinical practice.

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Published
2017-09-21
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Section
Reviews
Keywords:
Sjögren’s syndrome, Extra-glandular manifestations, Cardiovascular risk.
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How to Cite
Leone, M., Alunno, A., Cafaro, G., Valentini, V., Marcucci, E., Bartoloni, E., & Gerli, R. (2017). The clinical spectrum of primary Sjögren’s syndrome: beyond exocrine glands. Reumatismo, 69(3), 93-100. https://doi.org/10.4081/reumatismo.2017.1032

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