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A wide range of rheumatic and peripheral nervous system disorders may develop in patients with HIV infection, leading to pain, sensory symptoms, and muscle weakness. Over the past three decades, the progress in management of HIV disease with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in increased life expectancy for people living with HIV disease. With this new chronicity of the disease has a constellation of chronic musculoskeletal, orthopaedic and rheumatic manifestations has emerged, as potential complications of the disease itself and/or the results of ART treatment regimen and/or because of expected age-related symptoms/manifestations. The incidence of CTS in the general population is around 3.8% with clinical examination and, when electroneuromyography is used, it is 2.7%. In the HIV-positive population, the incidence is very close to that of the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of CTS and to identify factors influencing the development of CTS in HIV-infected patients attending our clinic. This syndrome has been associated with advanced HIV disease and the use of ART possibly due to an increased inflammatory state and the presence of concurrent HCV infection.
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